- an earlier CTM or a CTM application;
- an earlier national trademark or a national trademark application filed or registered in a Member State of the European Union;
- an international registration under the Madrid Agreement or the Madrid Protocol with effect in at least one of the Member States of the European Union;
- a non registered mark or another sign used in the course of trade of more than mere local significance valid in a Member State;
- a trademark which is well-known in one of the Member States.
- earlier identical or similar trademark with identical or similar list of goods exists and at similarity there is a likelihood of confusion on part of the public;
- trademark application was filed by an unauthorized agent;
- in cases if member states entitle the owner of earlier non registered mark to file opposition;
- in respect of different list of goods a well known identical or similar trademark exists and the use of the trademark would result unfair benefits.